Medieval Russia
9th-15th centuries



The first state-like formations, in the present-day territory of Russia, emerged around Novgorod and Kiev in the 9th century. Russia was then dominated by Vikings. After 250 years of Mongol supremacy, from the 13th century, Moscow became the most important power base in Russia. It was from Moscow that Ivan the Great ruled with a firm hand.


Kievan State is founded
Vladimir adopts Christianity
Mongol invasion begins
Russian victory at Kulikovo



Kievan Rus


The first forerunner of a state, which was in the territories of East Slavs, was named, “Rus,” and was established by the Viking clan called the, “Rus,” in the 9th century. Rich culture, and prosperous trade with the Byzantine Empire, made it the dominant ruler of, what is today, Western Russia.




Mongol Invasion


Mongols were the biggest threat to the Christian world in the 13th century. They established the largest continental empire of all time. Most of Western Russia was under Mongol rule for 250 years.



Grand Duchy of Moscow


In the ongoing power struggle, the Moscow princes were the smartest in dealing with the Mongol conquerors. Their Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually annexed all neighboring principalities, and became the heart of the state that later came to be known as Russia.



Ivan the Great


Ivan III (Ivan the Great), was the “… gatherer of Russian lands.” He brought the individual principalities of Rurikid princes under the direct rule of Moscow, and tripled the size of his territory. Ivan the Great laid the foundations of what later became known as the Russian state.


Tsardom of Russia